Fatah al-Qiyadah al-Thawriyyah − Libano

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Fatah - Revolutionary Council (Abu Nidal Organization)

A Palestinian organization better known as the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) headed by Sabri al-Bana (Abu Nidal) and founded in 1974 as a consequence of Abu Nidal`s split from the Fatah organization. The breakup and the foundation of the new organization was the result of the Iraqi regime's influence, which prompted Abu Nidal to launch independent terrorist operations to serve Iraqi interests. The organization considers itself since its foundation as the real Fatah, accusing the leaders of the original organization of treason.
Fatah-RC was considered the most dangerous, active and murderous Palestinian terror organization in the 1980s. It has demonstrated an ability to operate over wide areas in the Middle East, Asia, South America and Europe. It has carried out operations and terrorist acts against targets of various Arab countries, more than any other Palestinian organization, and also against Palestinian militants considered to be too moderate. From the beginning of the 1980s FatahRC attacked also Jewish, Israeli and Western targets. It practically ceased all terrorist attacks in the 1990s, although it is still considered to be potentially dangerous due to its new relations with Iran.

The FatahRC was also known as the Arab Revolutionary Council but choose to claim credit for its actions under the names of the Arab Revolutionary Brigades, the Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims when claiming credit for attacks on British targets, Black June when claiming credit for attacks on Jordanian targets, the Black September Organization.

Fatah - RC has about 400 members plus dozens of militia men in the Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon. It has no known affiliation in the Territories.
Ideology &
Terrorist Activity
from 1988-Present


During 1974-1980, the organization's headquarters were in Baghdad and its activity was mainly directed by the Iraqis, who gave Abu Nidal substantial logistic assistance. This period was characterized by terrorist attacks mainly against Syrian and Fatah/PLO targets.
At the beginning of the 1980s, after disagreements between the Iraqis and Abu Nidal over the independence of his organization and Iraq's interest during the war with Iran to improve its relations with the West, Abu Nidal and his men were expelled from Iraq and moved to Syria. Later on the headquarters moved to Libya, and since 1985 are located there. Since 1981 FatahRC attacked Jewish, Israeli and Western targets, but also Jordanian and Gulf states objectives and continued to hit Fatah militants and leaders.

US pressure on Syria constrained the organization to move its training and operational bases to Lebanon, in the Sidon area. The year 1987 marked a significant change in FatahRC's clandestine and secretive nature. The organization opened its ranks to new and young militants, formed a kind of militia and even initiated social and political activity in the Palestinian refugee camps in South Lebanon. The second half of the 1980s saw the most murderous and indiscriminate terror attacks by Fatah-RC.

However, the new modus operandi and the exposure to the refugees in South Lebanon brought a serious split in the organization and the dissidence in November 1989 of two leaders, Atef Abu Baker, member of the Central Committee, and Abdel Rahman Issa, member of the Political Bureau. They accused Abu Nidal of murdering 150 militants because of his fear from internal subversion. A brief attempt to reconcile with Fatah and its leader Yasser Arafat also failed and left Abu Nidal more isolated than ever. The failure of the last operations in the 1980s (the attack on the ship City of Poros in Greece and the arrest of most of its militants in South America) marked the operational decline of the organization.

It seems that since 1990 the organization has ceased to be active in the terrorist field, although it strengthened its relations with revolutionary Iran and participated in most of the congresses sponsored by Tehran. Abu Nidal's poor health may have played also its part in the weakening of Fatah-RC.

The organization has several offices in Syria, Yemen, Iran, Sudan and Lebanon. It is considered one of the most economically viable of all terrorist organizations. It is estimated that beside its income from patron states, it has revenues from extortion and from its own network of businesses and front organizations.

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Ideology & Strategy
The organization claims that the armed struggle against Israel is a sacred principle, the only way to achieve the liberation of all of Palestine, and nobody can deny it from the Palestinian people. Fatah and its leaders have betrayed this principle and the Palestinian Covenant so they must be punished. Both inter-Arab and intra-Palestinian terrorism are needed in order to precipitate an all-embracing Arab revolution that can alone lead to the liberation of Palestine.

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The organization is fully identified with its leader Abu Nidal, and only few activists are known besides him.
Sabri al-Bana (Abu Nidal) was born in 1939 in Jaffa. He emigrated with his family to Saudi Arabia after the Six Day War and worked there as a teacher. He joined Fatah in Egypt and in 1969 became its representative in Khartoum, Sudan. In 1970 Abu Nidal was appointed Fatah's representative in Baghdad, Iraq. There he began consolidating around him a group of loyal activists. With the assistance of the Iraqi intelligence services, Abu Nidal formed his own terrorist group and began to act in against Fatah's official policy, because of his opposition to any participation in the political negotiations.

On 26 October 1973 Abu Nidal was sentenced by Fatah, in absentia, to death, officially for "embezzlement and misuse of authority", but in reality for an attempt on Arafat's life.

In the last years there are only rumors about his location, his health and whether he is alive or dead

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Terrorist Activities
September 5, 1973: While still in the framework of Fatah, Abu Nidal occupied the Saudi embassy in Paris, asking the release of Abu Dawud, a Fatah terrorist imprisoned in Jordan during the September 1970 events.
September 26, 1976: Attack and take-over of the Semiramis Hotel in Damascus, Syria. Two of the participating terrorists were hanged in public.

October 11, 1976: Attacks on Syrian embassies in Islamabad, Pakistan and Rome, Italy .

November 17, 1976: Attack on the Intercontinental Hotel in Amman, Jordan .

December 13, 1976: Failed assassination attempt against Khadam, the Syrian foreign minister in Damascus, Syria and failed attack on the Syrian embassy In Istanbul, Turkey.

October 25, 1977: Another failed attempt to assassinate Khadam, the Syrian foreign minister, this time in Abu Dhabi. The United Arab Emirates minister of state for foreign affairs is killed during this attack.

January 4, 1978: Assassination of Said Hammami, the PLO representative in London, UK.

February 18, 1978: The senior Egyptian journalist Youssef al-Seba'i, President of the Conference of the Organization for the Solidarity with the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America is killed during an attack on the conference hall.

June 15, 1978: Assassination of Ali Yassin, the PLO representative in Kuwait.

August 3, 1978: Assassination of Izz al-Din al-Kalak, the PLO representative in Paris, France, and of one of his assistants.

August 5, 1978: Attack on the PLO offices in Islamabad, Pakistan.

January, 17, 1980: Assassination of Yussouf Mubarak, director of the Palestinian library-shop in Paris, France.

July 27, 1980: Attack on the children of a Jewish school in Antwerpen, Belgium. Claimed responsibility for the murder of the Israeli commercial attache in Brussels.

May 1, 1981: Assassination of Heinz Nittel, President of the Austrian-Israeli Friendship Association in Vienna, Austria.

June 1, 1981: Assassination of Naim Khader, the PLO representative in Brussels, Belgium.

August 29, 1981: Machiattack on Vienna synagogue, kills two and wounds 17 persons.

June 3, 1982: Attempted assassination of Shlomo Argov, Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom. The attack will trigger the war Israel waged in Lebanon against the PLO presence.

August 9, 1982: Machine-gun attack on the Jewish restaurant Goldberg in Paris, France.

August 26, 1982: Attempted assassination of the United Arab Emirates's consul in Bombay, India, and attempted assassination of another Kuwaiti diplomat in Karachi, Pakistan.

September 16, 1982: Assassination of a Kuwaiti diplomat in Madrid, Spain.

September 19, 1982: Attack on a synagogue in Brussels, Belgium.

October 9, 1982: One child is killed and another ten people are injured in a grenade and machine-gun attack on the central synagogue in Rome, Italy.

April 10, 1983: Assassination of PLO official Issam Sartawi at the Socialist International conference in Lisbon, Portugal.

Attempted assassination of the Jordanian ambassador to Italy, in Rome.

October 25, 1983: Assassination of the Jordanian ambassador in New Delhi, India. The next day, the Jordanian ambassador in Rome, Italy, is also killed.

November 7, 1983: Assassination of a security guard during an attack on the Jordanian embassy in Athens, Greece.

December 1983: Believed responsible for bombing the French Cultural Center in Izmir, Turkey.

December 29, 1983: Assassination of the Jordanian ambassador in Madrid, Spain.

February 8, 1984: Assassination of the UAE ambassador in Paris, France.

March 1984: Assassination of a British diplomat in Athens, Greece.

March, 24, 1984: A bomb is discovered in the Intercontinental Hotel in Amman, during the visit of Queen Elisabeth II in Jordan.

June 5, 1984: Attempted assassination of an Israeli diplomat in Cairo, Egypt.

October, 27, 1984: Attempted assassination of an UAE's diplomat in Rome, Italy.

November 27, 1984: Assassination of the British High Commissioner in Bombay, India.

November 29, 1984: Bombing of the British Airways offices in Beirut, Lebanon.

Attempted assassination of a Jordanian diplomat in Athens, Greece.

December 4, 1984: Assassination of a Jordanian diplomat in Bucarest, Rumania (Black September).

December 26, 1984: Bombing of PLO leader Hani al-Hassan's home in Amman, Jordan (Black September).

December 29, 1984: Assassination of PLO activist Fahed Kawasmeh in Amman, Jordan (Black September).

March 21, 1985: Bombings of ALIA (the Royal Jordanian Airlines) offices in Rome, Athens and Nicosia (Black September).

April 3, 4, 1985: Rockets fired at an ALIA airliner as it took off from Athens airport (although the rocket did not detonate, it left a hole in the fuselage) and against the Jordanian embassy in Rome.

July 22, 1985: Failed bombing of the American embassy in Cairo.

July , 1985: Bombing of the British Airways office in Madrid (one person killed and twenty seven wounded); five minutes later attack on ALIA offices, two blocks away (two persons wounded). Grenade attack against the Cafe de Paris in Rome (thirty eight people wounded).

November 23, 1985: Hijacking of an Egyptian plane to Malta, where sixty-six people were killed during a rescue attempt by the Egyptian military forces.

December 27, 1985: Major attacks on Rome and Vienna airports, killing sixteen and wounding scores. Attempted hijack of a Pan-Am flight at Karachi airport (22 persons killed).

September 6, 1986: Attack on the Neve-Shalom synagogue in Istanbul, killing twenty-two worshippers.

November 1987: Hijacking of a yacht with its eight Belgian occupants, taken hostage to Libya.

March 1988: A lone gunman attacks an Alitalia airlines crew aboard a commuter bus in Bombay, seriously wounding the crew captain.

May 1988: Simultaneous attacks on the Acropole Hotel and the Sudan Club in Khartoum (eight persons killed and twenty-one wounded.).

July 1988: Following the premature detonation of a car bomb at an Athens pier, in which two terrorists were killed, gunmen aboard the excursion ship City of Poros attacked the passengers, killing nine and wounding ninety-eight.

January 14, 1991: PLO deputy chief Abu Iyad, the most senior official of Fatah after Yasser Arafat, and Abu el-Hol, commander of the Western Sector forces of Fatah, assassinated by an Abu Nidal terrorist in Tunis.
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